Woman and Breast Cancer
Updated: Mar 2
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. It is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and it can also occur in men, although it is rare. Oncology is the medical specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Breast cancer is usually detected through screening tests, such as mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, or by a woman noticing a lump or other changes in her breast. Once breast cancer is diagnosed, the oncologist will determine the stage of the cancer, which is based on the size of the tumor, whether it has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body, and other factors. This information is used to develop a treatment plan tailored to the individual's needs.
Treatment options for breast cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy. The type of treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer, the location of the tumor, the type of cells involved, and other factors. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used.
It is important for women to be aware of their breast health and to have regular screenings, especially if they have a family history of breast cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
There are several oncology products that are used for the treatment of breast cancer. These include:
Chemotherapy drugs: Chemotherapy drugs are used to destroy rapidly dividing cancer cells. Some commonly used chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer include anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin) and taxanes (such as paclitaxel and docetaxel).
Hormone therapy drugs: Hormone therapy drugs are used to block the effects of estrogen or progesterone, which can fuel the growth of some types of breast cancer. Examples of hormone therapy drugs include tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (such as anastrozole and letrozole), and fulvestrant.
Targeted therapy drugs: Targeted therapy drugs are designed to specifically target and block proteins or pathways that contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells. Examples of targeted therapy drugs for breast cancer include trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and lapatinib, which target the HER2 protein that is overexpressed in some types of breast cancer.
Immunotherapy drugs: Immunotherapy drugs stimulate the body's immune system to attack cancer cells. In breast cancer, immunotherapy drugs are typically used in combination with chemotherapy or targeted therapy. One example of an immunotherapy drug for breast cancer is atezolizumab, which is used in combination with nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It is often used after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the breast or nearby lymph nodes.
The specific oncology products used for breast cancer treatment will depend on the individual's cancer stage, tumor characteristics, and overall health. A team of healthcare providers, including an oncologist, will work together to develop a personalized treatment plan.
The best targeted therapy drugs for breast cancer depend on the specific subtype of breast cancer and the individual's unique characteristics. Here are some examples of targeted therapy drugs used for specific types of breast cancer:
HER2-positive breast cancer: Trastuzumab (Herceptin) and pertuzumab (Perjeta) are two drugs that target the HER2 protein, which is overexpressed in about 20% of breast cancers.
Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: Hormone therapy drugs, such as tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane), and fulvestrant, block the effects of estrogen or progesterone, which can fuel the growth of these types of breast cancers.
Triple-negative breast cancer: Triple-negative breast cancer does not have receptors for estrogen, progesterone, or HER2, making it more difficult to treat. However, several targeted therapy drugs have shown promise in clinical trials, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (such as atezolizumab and pembrolizumab), PARP inhibitors (such as olaparib and talazoparib), and antibody-drug conjugates (such as sacituzumab govitecan).
PI3K-mutant breast cancer: Some breast cancers have mutations in the PI3K pathway, which plays a role in cell growth and division. Drugs that target this pathway, such as alpelisib (Piqray), have shown promise in treating these types of breast cancers.
It is important to note that these targeted therapy drugs are often used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. The best treatment plan for breast cancer will depend on the individual's specific cancer characteristics and overall health, and should be determined in consultation with a healthcare provider.